World Journal of Pharmaceutical
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ISSN: 2583-6579


Impact Factor: 3.454

ABSTRACT

SCREENING AND DIAGNOSIS OF BETA-THALASSEMIA DEPENDING ON HBA2 AND BLOOD FILM IN BAGHDAD CITY

Hussein O. Kready, Mohammed Mohammed, May Salem, Abdullah Salim Al-Karwi*

Background: Thalassemia is a group of inherited disorders that cause chronic anemia due to reduced or no production of hemoglobin. There are two types, α-thalassemia and β-thalassemia, based on genetic mutations and affected globin-chain subunits. Aim: This study in central Iraq aimed to increase awareness about different aspects of thalassemia and determine the prevalence, diagnosis, and trends of patients in Iraq based on blood film and HBA2%. Material and method: This retrospective study analyzed data from 53 thalassemia patients at Al-Kharama Teaching Hospital in Baghdad during 2020. The researchers examined complete blood counts and blood films for erythrocyte morphology and conducted HPLC analysis to measure HBA2%. They determined the beta-thalassemia types based on HBA2 percentage, complete blood count, blood film examination, and MCV/MCH rates. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 26, and comparisons were made to evaluate the relationship between beta-thalassemia types and HBA2 percentages. Results: The study revealed that globally, thalassemia, particularly β-thalassemia, is the most prevalent genetic blood disorder, with a carrier population exceeding 150 million across 60+ countries. Among the 53 subjects in this study, incidence rates were as follows: β-thalassemia minor (64.2%), β-thalassemia intermedia (26.4%), and β-thalassemia major (9.4%). Comparable rates were observed in Missan Province, Iraq, as well as Lebanon and Pakistan. Factors such as consanguineous marriages, a lack of effective prevention programs, and poor legislation were identified as contributors to the high prevalence of thalassemia in Iraq. The study emphasizes the immediate need for a comprehensive preventive program involving carrier diagnosis, differentiation from iron-deficiency anemia, genetic counseling, prenatal diagnostics, and public education.

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